12. Personnel Expenses and Employee Numbers

Personnel expenses for Continuing operations Revenue and earnings reporting for continuing operations pertains only to business operations that are expected to remain in the company’s portfolio for the foreseeable future; opposite of discontinued operations. rose in 2015 by €1,510 million to €11,203 million (2014: €9,693 million), mainly as a result of currency effects, the increase in the average number of employees, and higher employee bonuses based on the company’s financial success.

Personnel Expenses

 

 

2014

 

2015

 

 

€ million

 

€ million

2014 figures restated

Salaries

 

7,875

 

9,012

Social expenses and expenses for pensions and other benefits

 

1,818

 

2,191

of which for defined contribution pension plans

 

483

 

559

of which for defined benefit and other pension plans

 

351

 

502

Total

 

9,693

 

11,203

The personnel expenses shown here do not contain the interest portion of the allocation to personnel-related provisions – mainly for pensions and other post-employment benefits – which is included in the financial result under other financial expenses (Note [13.3]).

The average numbers of employees, classified by corporate function, were as shown in the table below:

Employees

 

 

2014

 

2015

2014 figures restated

Production

 

46,351

 

48,630

Marketing and distribution

 

44,150

 

45,078

Research and development

 

13,609

 

14,466

General administration

 

9,006

 

9,377

Total

 

113,116

 

117,551

Apprentices

 

2,349

 

2,332

The number of employees on either permanent or temporary contracts is stated in full-time equivalents, with part-time employees included on a pro-rated basis in line with their contractual working hours. The figures do not include apprentices.