4. Basic Principles, Methods and Critical Accounting Estimates

The financial statements of the consolidated companies are prepared according to uniform accounting policies and measurement principles.

The consolidated financial statements of the Group are based on the principle of the historical cost of acquisition, construction or production, with the exception of the items reflected at fair value, such as financial assets held for trading or available for sale, and derivatives.

In preparing the consolidated financial statements, the management has to make certain assumptions and estimates that may substantially impact the presentation of the Group’s financial position and / or results of operations.

Such estimates, assumptions or the exercise of discretion mainly relate to the useful life of noncurrent assets, the discounted Cash flow Key indicator for assessing a company’s financial strength; in addition to gross cash flow, the statement of cash flows also reports the cash flow from operating activities (net cash flow), which shows the amount of funds available from operating activities for financing investments, repaying debts or distributing dividends. The cash flows from investing and financing activities are also reported. used for impairment testing and purchase price allocations, and the recognition of provisions, including those for litigation-related expenses, pensions and other benefits, taxes, environmental compliance and remediation costs, sales allowances, product liability and guarantees. Essential estimates and assumptions that may affect reporting in the various item categories of the financial statements are described in the following sections of this note. Estimates are based on historical experience and other assumptions that are considered reasonable under given circumstances. They are continually reviewed but may vary from the actual values.

Changes in accounting policies or measurement principles in light of new or revised standards are applied retrospectively, except as otherwise provided in the respective standard. The income statement for the previous year and the opening statement of financial position for that year are adjusted as if the new accounting policies and / or measurement principles had always been applied.

Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include subsidiaries, joint arrangements and associates.

Subsidiaries are companies over which Bayer AG is currently able to exercise power by virtue of existing rights. Power means the ability to direct the activities that significantly influence a company’s profitability. Control is therefore only deemed to exist if Bayer AG is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with a company and has the ability to use its power over that company to affect the amount of that company’s returns. The ability to control another company generally derives from Bayer AG’s direct or indirect ownership of a majority of the voting rights. In the case of structured entities, however, control is based on contractual agreements. Inclusion of an entity’s accounts in the consolidated financial statements begins when the Bayer Group is able to exercise control over the entity and ceases when it is no longer able to do so.

Sales revenues, income and expenses, and gains and losses arising from transactions among the consolidated companies, along with receivables and liabilities existing between them, are eliminated. Deferred income tax effects are reflected in consolidation.

Capital consolidation is performed by offsetting the carrying amounts of subsidiaries against their underlying equity. When a majority interest in a company is acquired, its pro-rated equity at the acquisition date is measured using the acquisition method. Identifiable assets and liabilities (including contingent liabilities) are recognized at their fair values along with attributable deferred tax assets and liabilities. Any remaining difference to the purchase price is recognized as goodwill. The purchase prices of acquired companies domiciled outside the eurozone are translated at the exchange rates in effect at the respective dates of acquisition.

The purchase of shares from other owners is presented as an equity transaction. The difference between the equity acquired from other owners and the purchase price is therefore directly offset against equity.

Joint operations and joint ventures are based on joint arrangements. A joint arrangement is deemed to exist if the Bayer Group through a contractual agreement jointly controls activities managed with a third party. Joint control is only deemed to exist if decisions regarding the relevant activities require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.

A joint operation is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the assets, and obligations for the liabilities, relating to the arrangement. The Bayer Group recognizes the share of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses relating to its interest in a joint operation in accordance with its rights and obligations.

A joint venture is a joint arrangement whereby the parties that have joint control of the arrangement have rights to the net assets of the arrangement. Joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method.

Associates over which Bayer AG exerts significant influence, generally through an ownership interest between 20% and 50%, also are accounted for using the equity method.

The carrying amount of a company accounted for using the equity method is adjusted annually by the percentage of any change in its equity corresponding to Bayer’s percentage interest in the company. Differences arising upon first-time inclusion using the equity method were accounted for according to full-consolidation principles. Bayer’s share of changes in these companies’ equities recognized in profit or loss – including impairment losses recognized on goodwill – are reflected in equity-method income / loss.

Companies that do not have a material impact on the Group’s financial position or results of operations, either individually or in aggregate, are accounted for at cost of acquisition less any impairment losses.

Foreign currency translation

The financial statements of the individual companies for inclusion in the consolidated financial statements are prepared in their respective functional currencies. A company’s functional currency is that of the economic environment in which it primarily generates and expends cash. The majority of combined companies carry out their activities autonomously from a financial, economic and organizational point of view, and their functional currencies are therefore the respective local currencies.

In the separate financial statements of the individual consolidated companies, receivables and liabilities in currencies other than the respective functional currency are translated at closing rates. Related exchange differences are recognized in profit or loss as exchange gains or losses under other financial income and expenses.

In the consolidated financial statements, the assets and liabilities of companies outside the eurozone at the start and end of the year are translated into euros at closing rates. All changes occurring during the year and all income and expense items and cash flows are translated into euros at average monthly rates. Equity components are translated at the historical exchange rates prevailing at the respective dates of their first-time recognition in Group equity.

The exchange differences arising between the resulting amounts and those obtained by translating at closing rates are recognized outside profit or loss as “Exchange differences on translation of operations outside the eurozone” (in other comprehensive income) or “Exchange differences” (in the tables in the notes). When a company is deconsolidated, such exchange differences are reclassified from equity to profit or loss.

The exchange rates for major currencies against the euro varied as follows:

Exchange Rates for Major Currencies

 

 

 

Closing rate

 

Average rate

€1/

 

 

2014

2015

 

2014

2015

BRL

Brazil

 

3.22

4.31

 

3.12

3.64

CAD

Canada

 

1.41

1.51

 

1.47

1.42

CHF

Switzerland

 

1.20

1.08

 

1.21

1.07

CNY

China

 

7.54

7.06

 

8.17

6.97

GBP

United Kingdom

 

0.78

0.73

 

0.81

0.73

JPY

Japan

 

145.23

131.07

 

140.32

134.28

MXN

Mexico

 

17.87

18.91

 

17.65

17.56

RUB

Russia

 

72.34

80.67

 

50.25

67.23

USD

United States

 

1.21

1.09

 

1.33

1.11

Subsidiaries whose functional currencies have experienced a cumulative inflation rate of more than 100% over the past three years apply the rules of IAS 29 (Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies). Gains and losses incurred upon adjusting the carrying amounts of nonmonetary assets and liabilities for inflation are recognized in other operating income and expenses.

In 2015, as in prior years, the rules of IAS 29 were relevant for Bayer S.A., Venezuela.

Several widely differing official exchange rates for the Venezuelan bolivar (VEF) against the U.S. dollar were published in 2014. Bayer S.A., Venezuela, was included in the consolidated financial statements for 2014 at the official exchange rate potentially applicable to future capital transfers if permission for conversion into U.S. dollars is granted (SICAD I).

In 2015, a further official exchange rate (SIMADI) was introduced. In view of the low U.S. dollar allocation at the more favorable government-subsidized exchange rates and the continued deterioration in the Venezuelan economy, currency translation was switched to the SIMADI rate. The resulting U.S. dollar amount is translated at the respective dollar / euro rate.

As of December 31, 2015, Bayer S.A., Venezuela, had trade accounts equivalent to €121 million (2014: €150 million) payable to other Group companies in U.S. dollars. Impairment losses of €91 million were recognized on receivables in 2015 because the Venezuelan exchange control authority did not allocate U.S. dollars at the subsidized exchange rate with respect to the full amounts of older receivables. Hyperinflationary exchange gains of €43 million were incurred in 2015 (2014: losses of €59 million), mainly from the net foreign currency position, in connection with the depreciation of the VEF against the U.S. dollar.

Net sales and other operating income

All revenues derived from the selling of products or rendering of services or from licensing agreements are recognized as sales. Other operational revenues are recognized as other operating income. Sales are recognized in profit or loss when the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the goods have been transferred to the customer, the company retains neither continuing managerial involvement to the degree usually associated with ownership nor effective control over the goods sold, the amount of revenue and costs incurred or to be incurred can be measured reliably, and it is sufficiently probable that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the company.

Sales are stated net of sales taxes, other taxes and sales deductions at the fair value of the consideration received or to be received. Sales deductions are estimated amounts for rebates, cash discounts and product returns. They are deducted at the time the sales are recognized, and appropriate provisions are recorded. Sales deductions are estimated primarily on the basis of historical experience, specific contractual terms and future expectations of sales development. It is unlikely that factors other than these could materially affect sales deductions in the Bayer Group. Adjustments to provisions made in prior periods for rebates, cash discounts or product returns were of secondary importance for income before income taxes in the years under report.

Provisions for rebates in 2015 amounted to 3.8% of total net sales (2014: 3.4%). In addition to rebates, Group companies offer cash discounts for prompt payment in some countries. Provisions for cash discounts as of December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014 were less than 0.1% of total net sales for the respective year.

Sales are reduced by the amount of the provisions for expected returns of defective goods or of saleable products that may be returned under contractual arrangements. The net sales are reduced on the date of sale or on the date when the amount of future returns can be reasonably estimated. Provisions for product returns in 2015 amounted to 0.4% of total net sales (2014: 0.5%). If future product returns cannot be reasonably estimated and are significant to a sales transaction, the revenues and the related cost of sales are deferred until a reasonable estimate can be made or the right to return the goods has expired.

Some of the Bayer Group’s revenues are generated on the basis of licensing agreements under which third parties have been granted rights to products and technologies. Payments received, or expected to be received, that relate to the sale or outlicensing of technologies or technological expertise are recognized in profit or loss as of the effective date of the respective agreement if all rights relating to the technologies and all obligations resulting from them have been relinquished under the contract terms. However, if rights to the technologies continue to exist or obligations resulting from them have yet to be fulfilled, the payments received are deferred accordingly. Upfront payments and similar nonrefundable payments received under these agreements are recorded as other liabilities and recognized in profit or loss according to the degree of performance over the estimated performance period stipulated in the agreement.

License agreements and research and development collaboration agreements may be multiple-deliverable arrangements with varying consideration terms, such as upfront payments and milestone or similar payments. Such agreements therefore have to be assessed to determine whether the revenues allocated to individual deliverables must be recognized at different points in time and therefore form separate units of account.

To qualify as a separate unit of account for revenue recognition purposes, a deliverable must have value to the licensee on a standalone basis. If this is not the case, the agreement as a whole or a combination of individual deliverables that has value on a standalone basis forms a unit of account.

If necessary goods have yet to be delivered or necessary services provided for a unit of account and such delivery or provision is probable, nonrefundable (royalty) payments already received are recognized through profit or loss over the periods in which these goods are delivered or these services are provided.

Income may also arise from the exchange of intangible assets. The amount recognized is generally based on the fair value of the assets given up, calculated using the discounted cash flow method. If the assets given up are internally generated, the gain from the exchange generally equals their fair value.

Research and development expenses

For accounting purposes, research expenses are defined as costs incurred for current or planned investigations undertaken with the prospect of gaining new scientific or technical knowledge and understanding. Development expenses are defined as costs incurred for the application of research findings or specialist knowledge to plans or designs for the production, provision or development of new or substantially improved products, services or processes, respectively, prior to the commencement of commercial production or use.

Research and development expenses are incurred in the Bayer Group for in-house research and development activities as well as numerous research and development collaborations and alliances with third parties.

Research and development expenses mainly comprise the costs for active ingredient discovery, clinical studies, research and development activities in the areas of application technology and engineering, field trials, regulatory approvals and approval extensions.

Research costs cannot be capitalized. The conditions for capitalization of development costs are closely defined: an intangible asset must be recognized if, and only if, there is reasonable certainty of receiving future Cash flow Key indicator for assessing a company’s financial strength; in addition to gross cash flow, the statement of cash flows also reports the cash flow from operating activities (net cash flow), which shows the amount of funds available from operating activities for financing investments, repaying debts or distributing dividends. The cash flows from investing and financing activities are also reported. that will cover an asset’s carrying amount. Since our own development projects are often subject to regulatory approval procedures and other uncertainties, the conditions for the capitalization of costs incurred before receipt of approvals are not normally satisfied.

In the case of research and development collaborations, a distinction is generally made between payments on contract signature, upfront payments, milestone payments and cost reimbursements for work performed. If an intangible asset (such as the right to the use of an active ingredient) is acquired in connection with any of these payment obligations, the respective payment is capitalized even if it is uncertain whether further development work will ultimately lead to the production of a saleable product. Reimbursements of the cost of research or development work are recognized in profit or loss, except where they are required to be capitalized.

Income taxes

Income taxes comprise the taxes levied on taxable income in the individual countries along with changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities that are recognized in profit or loss. The income taxes recognized are reflected at the amounts likely to be payable under the statutory regulations in force, or already enacted in relation to future periods, at the end of the reporting period.

In compliance with IAS 12 (Income Taxes), deferred taxes are recognized for temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the statement of financial position prepared according to IFRS and their tax bases. Deferred taxes are also recognized for consolidation measures and for tax loss carryforwards and tax credits that are likely to be usable.

Deferred tax assets relating to deductible temporary differences, tax credits or tax loss carryforwards are recognized where it is sufficiently probable that taxable income will be available in the future to enable them to be used. Deferred tax liabilities are recognized on temporary differences taxable in the future. Deferred taxes are calculated at the rates which – on the basis of the statutory regulations in force, or already enacted in relation to future periods, as of the closing date – are expected to apply in the individual countries at the time of realization. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are offset if they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and Bayer has a legal right to settle on a net basis. Material effects of changes in tax rates or tax law on deferred tax assets and liabilities are generally accounted for in the period in which the changes are enacted. Such effects are recognized in profit or loss except where they relate to deferred taxes that were recognized outside profit or loss, in which case they are recognized in other comprehensive income.

Deferred and current taxes are recognized in profit or loss unless they relate to items recognized outside profit or loss in other comprehensive income, in which case they, too, are recognized in other comprehensive income.

The probability that deferred tax assets resulting from temporary differences or loss carryforwards can be used in the future is the subject of forecasts by the individual consolidated companies regarding their future earnings situation and other parameters.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognized on planned dividend payments by subsidiaries. Where no dividend payment is planned for the foreseeable future, no deferred tax liability is recognized on the difference between the proportionate net assets according to IFRS and the tax base of the investment in the subsidiary.

Goodwill

In a business combination, goodwill is capitalized at the acquisition date. It is measured at its cost of acquisition, which is the excess of the acquisition price for shares in a company over the acquired net assets. The net assets are the balance of the fair values of the acquired identifiable assets and the assumed liabilities and contingent liabilities.

Goodwill is not amortized, but tested annually for impairment. Details of the annual impairment tests are given under “Procedure used in global impairment testing and its impact.” Once an impairment loss has been recognized on goodwill, it is not reversed in subsequent periods.

Other intangible assets

An “other intangible asset” is an identifiable nonmonetary asset without physical substance, other than goodwill (such as a patent, a trademark or a marketing right). It is capitalized if the future economic benefits attributable to the asset will probably flow to the company and the cost of acquisition or generation of the asset can be reliably measured.

Other intangible assets are recognized at the cost of acquisition or generation. Those with a determinable useful life are amortized accordingly on a straight-line basis over a period of up to 30 years, except where their actual depletion demands a different amortization pattern. Determination of the expected useful lives of such assets and the amortization patterns is based on estimates of the period for which they will generate cash flows. An impairment test is performed if there is an indication of possible impairment.

Other intangible assets with an indefinite life (such as the Bayer Cross trademark) and intangible assets not yet available for use (such as research and development projects) are not amortized, but tested annually for impairment.

Any impairment losses are recognized in profit or loss. If the reasons for a previously recognized impairment loss no longer apply, the impairment loss is reversed provided that the reversal does not cause the carrying amount to exceed the (amortized) cost of acquisition or generation.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is carried at the cost of acquisition or construction and depreciated over its estimated useful life. An impairment loss is recognized in addition if an asset’s recoverable amount falls below its carrying amount.

The cost of self-constructed property, plant and equipment comprises the direct cost of materials, direct manufacturing expenses, and appropriate allocations of material and manufacturing overheads. Where an obligation exists to dismantle or remove an asset or restore a site to its former condition at the end of its useful life, the present value of the related future payments is capitalized along with the cost of acquisition or construction upon completion and a corresponding liability is recognized.

If the construction phase of property, plant or equipment extends over a substantial period of time, the interest incurred on borrowed capital up to the date of completion is capitalized as part of the cost of acquisition or construction in accordance with IAS 23 (Borrowing Costs).

Costs for regular, comprehensive maintenance work (such as the major overhaul of a technical facility) are capitalized as a separate component if they satisfy the recognition criteria.

Property, plant and equipment is depreciated by the straight-line method over an asset’s useful life, except where depreciation based on actual depletion is more appropriate.

The following depreciation periods are applied throughout the Group:

Useful Life of Property, Plant and Equipment

Buildings

 

20 to 50 years

Outdoor infrastructure

 

10 to 20 years

Storage tanks and pipelines

 

10 to 20 years

Plant installations

 

6 to 20 years

Machinery and equipment

 

6 to 12 years

Furniture and fixtures

 

4 to 10 years

Vehicles

 

5 to 8 years

Computer equipment

 

3 to 5 years

Laboratory and research facilities

 

3 to 5 years

Significant asset components with different useful lives are accounted for and depreciated separately.

If there are indications that an individual item of property, plant and equipment may be impaired, the recoverable amount is compared to the carrying amount. If the recoverable amount is less than the carrying amount, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference. If the reasons for a previously recognized impairment loss no longer apply, the impairment loss is reversed provided that the reversal does not cause the carrying amount to exceed the cost of acquisition or construction less depreciation.

When assets are sold, closed down or scrapped, the difference between the net proceeds and the net carrying amount of the assets is recognized as a gain or loss in other operating income or expenses, respectively.

Investment property comprises land and buildings not being used for operational or administrative purposes. It is measured using the cost model. The fair value of the investment property reported in the Notes is determined using the discounted cash flow method, comparisons with the current market values of similar properties, or reports from external experts.

Financial assets

Financial assets comprise loans and receivables, acquired equity and debt instruments, cash and cash equivalents, and derivatives with positive fair values.

They are recognized and measured in accordance with IAS 39 (Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement). Accordingly, financial assets are recognized in the consolidated financial statements if the Bayer Group has a contractual right to receive cash or other financial assets from another entity. Regular-way purchases and sales of financial assets are generally posted on the settlement date. Financial assets are initially recognized at fair value plus transaction costs. The transaction costs incurred for the purchase of financial assets held at fair value through profit or loss are expensed immediately. Interest-free or low-interest receivables are initially reflected at the present value of the expected future cash flows. Upon first-time recognition, each financial asset is assigned to one of the categories prescribed in IAS 39. Subsequent measurement takes place according to the measurement rules for the respective category. The measurement rules for each category are set forth below:

Financial assets held at fair value through profit or loss comprise those financial assets that are held for trading. Receivables from forward commodity contracts and receivables from other derivatives that are included in other financial assets are allocated to this category, except where hedge accounting is used. Changes in the fair value of financial assets in this category are recognized in profit or loss when the increase or decrease in fair value occurs.

Loans and receivables are nonderivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. They are accounted for at amortized cost using the effective interest method. This category comprises trade accounts receivable, the loans and receivables included in other financial assets, the additional financial receivables reflected in other receivables, and cash and cash equivalents. Interest income from items assigned to this category is determined using the effective interest method.

Held-to-maturity financial assets are nonderivative financial assets, with fixed or determinable payments, that the Bayer Group is willing and able to hold until maturity. They are accounted for at amortized cost using the effective interest method. Held-to-maturity financial investments are recognized in other financial assets.

Available-for-sale financial assets are those nonderivative financial assets that are not assigned to any of the above categories. They mainly include equity instruments (such as shares), debt instruments with indefinite maturities, and debt instruments not to be held to maturity that are included in other financial assets. After their first-time recognition, available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value and any unrealized gains or losses are recognized outside profit or loss in equity. These are only reclassified to profit or loss if the assets are sold or if there are objective indications of impairment, in which case the accumulated loss is recognized in profit or loss. An objective indication of impairment is a significant or prolonged decrease in the fair value of an equity instrument to below its acquisition cost. Previously recognized impairment losses are reversed if the reasons for them no longer apply. Impairment loss reversals for equity instruments are recognized outside profit or loss, while those for debt instruments are recognized in profit or loss. Where possible, a fair value for equity and debt securities is derived from market data. Financial assets for which no market price is available and whose fair value cannot be reasonably estimated are recognized at cost less any impairment losses.

If there are substantial and objective indications of a decline in the value of loans and receivables, held-to-maturity financial assets or available-for-sale financial assets, an impairment test is performed. Indications of possible impairment include a high probability of insolvency, a significant deterioration in credit standing, a material breach of contract, operating losses reported by a company over several years, a reduction in market value, the financial restructuring of the debtor, or the disappearance of an active market for the asset.

In the case of loans and receivables, and held-to-maturity financial assets, an impairment test is performed in which the carrying amount is compared to the present value of the expected future cash flows, discounted at the original effective interest rate. If the carrying amount exceeds the present value, an impairment loss is recognized for the difference between the two amounts. If the reasons for previously recognized impairment losses no longer apply, the impairment losses are reversed provided that this does not cause the carrying amounts to exceed the amortized cost of acquisition.

Financial assets are derecognized when contractual rights to receive cash flows from the financial assets expire or the financial assets are transferred together with all material risks and benefits.

Inventories

In accordance with IAS 2 (Inventories), inventories encompass assets consumed in production or in the rendering of services (raw materials and supplies), assets in the production process for sale (work in process), goods held for sale in the ordinary course of business (finished goods and goods purchased for resale), and advance payments on inventories. Inventories are recognized at their cost of acquisition or production – calculated by the weighted-average method – or at their net realizable value, whichever is lower. The net realizable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less estimated cost to complete and selling expenses.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents comprise cash, checks received, and balances with banks and companies. Cash equivalents are highly liquid short-term financial investments that are subject to an insignificant risk of changes in value, are easily convertible into a known amount of cash and have a maturity of three months or less from the date of acquisition or investment.

Assets held for sale

Assets held for sale comprise noncurrent assets or disposal groups (together with any liabilities), the carrying amounts of which will be realized principally through a highly probable sale transaction within the next twelve months or an already contractually agreed sale transaction, and not through continued use. At the time of their classification as “held for sale,” such assets are collectively measured at the lower of the carrying amount and fair value less costs of disposal, and depreciation or amortization ceases.

Groups of assets held for sale that represent a standalone business and correspond to at least one strategic business entity are combined in the income statement, statement of comprehensive income, statement of financial position and statement of cash flows and reported under assets held for sale or Discontinued operations Business operations already divested or earmarked for divestiture in the near future; opposite of continuing operations .

Provisions for pensions and other post-employment benefits

Within the Bayer Group, post-employment benefits are provided under defined contribution and / or defined benefit plans. In the case of defined contribution plans, the company pays contributions to publicly or privately administered pension plans on a mandatory, contractual or voluntary basis. Once the contributions have been paid, the company has no further payment obligations. The regular contributions constitute expenses for the year in which they are due and as such are included in the functional cost items, and thus in EBIT Income after income taxes, plus income taxes, plus financial result; EBIT is not defined in the International Financial Reporting Standards. . All other post-employment benefit systems are defined benefit plans, which may be either unfunded, i.e. financed by provisions, or funded, i.e. financed through pension funds.

The present value of provisions for defined benefit plans and the resulting expense are calculated in accordance with IAS 19 (Employee Benefits) by the projected unit credit method. The future benefit obligations are valued by actuarial methods and spread over the entire employment period on the basis of specific assumptions regarding beneficiary structure and the economic environment. These relate mainly to the discount rate, future salary and pension increases, variations in health care costs, and mortality rates.

The discount rates used are calculated from the yields of high-quality corporate bond portfolios in specific currencies with cash flows approximately equivalent to the expected disbursements from the pension plans. The uniform discount rate derived from this interest-rate structure is thus based on the yields, at the closing date, of a portfolio of “AA” rated corporate bonds whose weighted residual maturities approximately correspond to the duration necessary to cover the entire benefit obligation.

The fair value of plan assets is deducted from the present value of the defined benefit obligation for pensions and other post-employment benefits to determine the net defined benefit liability. The obligations and plan assets are valued at regular intervals of not more than three years. Comprehensive actuarial valuations for all major plans are performed annually as of December 31. Plan assets in excess of the benefit obligation are reflected in other receivables, subject to the asset ceiling specified in IAS 19 (Employee Benefits).

The balance of all income and expenses relating to defined benefit plans, except the net interest on the net liability, is recognized in EBIT. The net interest is reflected in the financial result under other financial income and expenses.

The effects of remeasurements of the net defined benefit liability are reflected in the statement of comprehensive income as other comprehensive income. They consist of actuarial gains and losses, the return on plan assets and changes in the effects of the asset ceiling, less the respective amounts included in net interest. Deferred taxes relating to the effects of remeasurements are also recognized in other comprehensive income.

Other provisions

Other provisions are recognized for present legal and constructive obligations arising from past events that will probably give rise to a future outflow of resources, provided that a reliable estimate can be made of the amount of the obligations.

Other provisions are measured in accordance with IAS 37 (Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets) or, where applicable, IAS 19 (Employee Benefits). Where the cash outflow to settle an obligation is expected to occur after one year, the provision is recognized at the present value of the expected cash outflow. Claims for reimbursements from third parties are separately reflected in other receivables if their realization is virtually certain.

If the projected obligation declines as a result of a change in the estimate, the provision is reversed by the corresponding amount and the resulting income recognized in the operating expense item(s) in which the original charge was recognized.

To enhance the information content of the estimates, certain provisions that could have a material effect on the financial position or results of operations of the Group are selected and tested for their sensitivity to changes in the underlying parameters. To reflect uncertainty about the likelihood of the assumed events actually occurring, the impact of a five-percentage-point change in the probability of occurrence is examined in each case. This analysis has not shown other provisions to be materially sensitive.

Complex tax regulations may give rise to uncertainties with respect to their interpretation and the amount and timing of future taxable income. Given the wide range of international business relationships and the long-term nature and complexity of existing contractual agreements, differences arising between the actual results and the assumptions made, or future changes to such assumptions, could necessitate adjustments to tax income and expense in future periods. The Group establishes provisions for taxes, based on reasonable estimates, for liabilities to the tax authorities of the respective countries that are uncertain as to their amount and the probability of their occurrence. The amount of such provisions is based on various factors, such as experience with previous tax audits and differing legal interpretations by the taxable entity and the responsible tax authority.

Provisions for environmental protection are recorded if future cash outflows are likely to be necessary to ensure compliance with environmental regulations or to carry out remediation work, such costs can be reliably estimated and no future benefits are expected from such measures.

Estimating the future costs of environmental protection and remediation involves many uncertainties, particularly with regard to the status of laws, regulations and the information available about conditions in the various countries and at the individual sites. Significant factors in estimating the costs include previous experiences in similar cases, the conclusions in expert opinions obtained regarding the Group’s environmental programs, current costs and new developments affecting costs, management’s interpretation of current environmental laws and regulations, the number and financial position of third parties that may become obligated to participate in any remediation costs on the basis of joint liability, and the remediation methods likely to be deployed. Changes in these assumptions could impact future reported results.

Taking into consideration experience gained to date regarding environmental matters of a similar nature, provisions are believed to be adequate based upon currently available information. Given the difficulties inherent in estimating liabilities in the businesses in which the Group operates, especially those for which the risk of environmental damage is greater in relative terms (CropScience and Covestro), it remains possible that material additional costs will be incurred beyond the amounts accrued. It may transpire during remediation work that additional expenditures are necessary over an extended period and that these exceed existing provisions and cannot be reasonably estimated.

Provisions for restructuring only cover expenses that arise directly from restructuring measures, are necessary for restructuring and are not related to future business operations. Such expenses include severance payments to employees and compensation payments in respect of rented property that can no longer be used.

Restructuring measures may include the sale or termination of business units, site closures, relocations of business activities or fundamental reorganizations of business units.

The respective provisions are established when a detailed restructuring plan has been drawn up, resolved upon by the responsible decision-making level of management and communicated to the employees and / or their representatives. Provisions for restructuring are established at the present value of future disbursements.

Trade-related provisions are recorded mainly for the granting of rebates or discounts, product returns, or obligations in respect of services already received but not yet invoiced.

As a global enterprise with a diverse business portfolio, the Bayer Group is exposed to numerous legal risks for which provisions for litigations must be established under certain conditions – particularly in the areas of product liability, competition and antitrust law, patent disputes, tax law and environmental protection.

Litigation and other judicial proceedings often raise complex issues and are subject to many uncertainties and complexities including, but not limited to, the facts and circumstances of each particular case, the jurisdiction in which each suit is brought and differences in applicable law. The outcomes of currently pending and future proceedings generally cannot be predicted. It is particularly difficult to assess the likely outcomes of class actions for damages in the United States, which may give rise to significant financial risks for the Bayer Group. As a result of a judgment in court proceedings, regulatory decisions or the conclusion of a settlement, the Bayer Group may incur charges for which no accounting measures have yet been taken for lack of reasonable estimability or which exceed presently established provisions and the insurance coverage.

The Bayer Group considers the need for accounting measures in respect of pending or future litigations, and the extent of any such measures, on the basis of the information available to its legal department and in close consultation with legal counsel acting for the Bayer Group.

Where it is more likely than not that such a litigation will result in an outflow of resources that is already reasonably estimable, a provision for litigation is recorded in the amount of the present value of the expected cash outflows. Such provisions cover the estimated payments to the plaintiffs, court and procedural costs, attorney costs and the cost of potential settlements.

It is frequently impossible to reliably determine the existence of a present obligation or reasonably estimate the probability that a potential outflow of resources will result from a pending or future litigation. The status of the material “legal risks” is described in Note [32]. Due to the special nature of these litigations, provisions generally are not established until initial settlements allow an estimate of potential amounts or judgments have been issued. Provisions for legal defense costs are established if it is probable that material costs will have to be incurred for external legal counsel to defend the company’s legal position.

Internal and external legal counsel evaluate the current status of the Bayer Group’s material legal risks at the end of each reporting period. The need to establish or adjust a provision and the amount of the provision or adjustment are determined on this basis. Adjusting events are reflected up to the date of preparation of the consolidated financial statements. The measurement of provisions in the case of class actions or mass compensation claims is mainly based on any settlements reached during the past year and on pending or anticipated future claims.

Personnel-related provisions are mainly those recorded for annual bonus payments, variable one-time payments, individual performance awards, long-service awards, severance payments in connection with early retirement arrangements, surpluses on long-term accounts and other personnel costs. Obligations under stock-based compensation programs that provide for awards payable in cash are also included here.

Financial liabilities

Financial liabilities comprise primary financial liabilities and negative fair values of derivatives.

Primary financial liabilities are initially recognized in the consolidated financial statements at fair value if the Bayer Group has a contractual obligation to transfer cash or other financial assets to another party. In subsequent periods, such liabilities are measured at amortized cost using the effective interest method.

Liabilities for contingent consideration arising from business combinations are measured at fair value. Changes in fair value are recognized through profit or loss as of the respective closing date.

Financial liabilities are derecognized when the contractual obligation is discharged or canceled, or has expired.

Other receivables and liabilities

Accrued items and other nonfinancial assets and liabilities are carried at amortized cost. They are amortized to income by the straight-line method or according to performance of the underlying transaction.

Grants and subsidies from third parties that serve to promote investment are reflected in the statement of financial position under other liabilities and amortized to income over the useful lives of the respective investments or in line with the terms of the grant or subsidy.

Derivatives

The Bayer Group uses derivatives – such as forward exchange contracts and interest-rate swaps – to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates, interest rates or prices. Derivatives are recognized at the trade date.

Contracts concluded in order to receive or deliver nonfinancial goods for the company’s own purposes are not accounted for as derivatives but treated as pending transactions. Where embedded derivatives are identified that are required to be separated from the pending transactions, they are accounted for separately. To take advantage of market opportunities or cover possible peak demand, a nonmaterial volume of transactions may be entered into for which the possibility of immediate resale cannot be excluded. Such transactions are allocated to separate portfolios upon acquisition and accounted for as derivatives according to IAS 39.

Derivatives are carried at fair value. Positive fair values at the end of the reporting period are reflected in financial assets, negative fair values in financial liabilities. Changes in the fair values of these derivatives are recognized directly in profit or loss except where hedge accounting is used. Changes in the fair values of forward exchange contracts and currency options serving as hedges of items in the statement of financial position are reflected in other financial income and expenses as exchange gains or losses, while changes in the values of interest-rate swaps and interest-rate options are recognized in interest income or expense. Changes in the fair values of commodity futures and options, and of forward exchange contracts used to hedge forecasted transactions in foreign currencies, are recognized in other operating income or expenses.

Changes in the fair values of derivatives designated as fair-value hedges and the adjustments in the carrying amounts of the underlying transactions are recognized in profit or loss.

Changes in the fair values of the effective portion of derivatives designated as cash flow hedges are initially recognized outside profit or loss in accumulated other comprehensive income. They are reclassified to profit or loss when the underlying transaction is realized. If such a derivative is sold or ceases to qualify for hedge accounting, the change in its value continues to be recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income until the forecasted transaction is realized. If the forecasted transaction is no longer probable, the amount previously recognized in accumulated other comprehensive income has to be reclassified to profit or loss. The ineffective portion of gains or losses on derivatives designated as cash flow hedges is recognized either in other operating income or expenses or in the financial result, depending on the type of underlying transaction.

The income and expense reflected in the financial result pertaining to the derivatives and the underlying transactions are shown separately. Income and expense are not offset.

Leases

A lease is an agreement whereby the lessor assigns to the lessee the right to use an asset for an agreed period of time in return for a payment or series of payments. Leases are classified as either finance or operating leases. Lease transactions that transfer substantially all the risks and rewards incidental to ownership of the leased asset to the lessee are treated as finance leases. All other lease agreements are classified as operating leases. Whether an agreement constitutes a lease or contains a lease is determined upon inception of the lease.

Where the Bayer Group is the lessee in a finance lease, the leased asset is capitalized at the lower of the fair value of the asset and the present value of the minimum lease payments at the beginning of the lease term and simultaneously recognized under financial liabilities. The minimum lease payments are divided into the principal portion of the remaining obligation and the financing costs, which are determined using the effective-interest method. The leased asset is depreciated by the straight-line method over the shorter of its estimated useful life or the lease term.

Where the Bayer Group is the lessee in an operating lease, the lease payments are expensed. Where it is the lessor, the lease payments received are recognized in profit or loss. The leased asset continues to be recognized under property, plant and equipment in the Bayer Group’s statement of financial position.

Acquisition accounting

Acquired businesses are accounted for using the acquisition method, which requires that the assets acquired and liabilities assumed be recorded at their respective fair values on the date Bayer obtains control. Ancillary acquisition costs are recognized as expenses in the periods in which they occur.

The application of the acquisition method requires certain estimates and assumptions to be made, especially concerning the fair values of the acquired intangible assets, property, plant and equipment and the liabilities assumed at the acquisition date, and the useful lives of the acquired intangible assets, property, plant and equipment.

Measurement is based to a large extent on anticipated Cash flow Key indicator for assessing a company’s financial strength; in addition to gross cash flow, the statement of cash flows also reports the cash flow from operating activities (net cash flow), which shows the amount of funds available from operating activities for financing investments, repaying debts or distributing dividends. The cash flows from investing and financing activities are also reported. . If actual cash flows vary from those used in calculating fair values, this may materially affect the Group’s future results of operations. In particular, the estimation of discounted cash flows from intangible assets under development, patented and nonpatented technologies and brands is based on assumptions concerning, for example:

  • the outcomes of research and development activities regarding compound efficacy, results of clinical trials, etc.,
  • the probability of obtaining regulatory approvals in individual countries,
  • long-term sales trends,
  • possible selling price erosion due to generic competition in the market following patent expirations,
  • the behavior of competitors (launch of competing products, marketing initiatives, etc.).

For significant acquisitions, the purchase price allocation is carried out with assistance from independent third-party valuation specialists. The valuations are based on the information available at the acquisition date.

In step acquisitions, the fair values of the acquired entity’s assets and liabilities are measured in accordance with IFRS 3 (Business Combinations) at the date on which control is obtained. Any resulting adjustments to the fair value of the existing interest are recognized in profit or loss. The carrying amount of the assets and liabilities already recognized in the statement of financial position is then adjusted accordingly.

Procedure used in global impairment testing and its impact

Impairment tests are performed not only on individual items of intangible assets, property, plant and equipment, but also at the level of cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units. A cash-generating unit is the smallest identifiable group of assets that generates cash inflows that are largely independent of the cash inflows from other assets or groups of assets. The Bayer Group regards its strategic business entities or groups of strategic business entities, as well as certain product families, as cash-generating units and subjects them to global impairment testing. The strategic business entities constitute the second financial reporting level below the segments.

Cash-generating units and unit groups are globally tested if there is an indication of possible impairment. Those to which goodwill is allocated are tested at least annually.

Impairment testing involves comparing the carrying amount of each cash-generating unit, unit group or item of intangible assets, property, plant or equipment to the recoverable amount, which is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal or value in use. If the carrying amount exceeds the recoverable amount, an impairment loss must be recognized for the difference. If a strategic business entity or entity group is found to be impaired, an impairment loss is first recognized on any goodwill allocated to it. Any remaining part of the impairment loss is then allocated among the other noncurrent nonfinancial assets of the strategic business entity or entity group in proportion to their carrying amounts. The resulting expense is reflected in the functional item of the income statement in which the depreciation or amortization of the respective assets is recognized. The same applies to income from impairment loss reversals.

The recoverable amount is generally determined on the basis of the fair value less costs of disposal, taking into account the present value of the future net cash flows as market prices for the individual units are not normally available. These are forecasted on the basis of the Bayer Group’s current planning, the planning horizon normally being three to five years. Forecasting involves making assumptions, especially regarding future selling prices, sales volumes, costs, market growth rates, economic cycles and exchange rates. These assumptions are based on internal estimates along with external market studies. Where the recoverable amount is the fair value less costs of disposal, the cash-generating unit or unit group is measured from the viewpoint of an independent market participant. Where the recoverable amount is the value in use, the cash-generating unit, unit group or individual asset is measured as currently used. In either case, net cash flows beyond the planning period are determined on the basis of long-term business expectations using the respective individual growth rates derived from market information. The fair value less costs of disposal is determined on the basis of unobservable inputs (Level 3).

The net cash inflows are discounted at a rate equivalent to the weighted average cost of equity and debt capital. To allow for the different risk and return profiles of the Bayer Group’s principal businesses, the after-tax cost of capital is calculated separately for each subgroup and a subgroup-specific capital structure is defined by benchmarking against comparable companies in the same industry sector. The cost of equity corresponds to the return expected by stockholders, while the cost of debt is based on the conditions on which comparable companies can obtain long-term financing. Both components are derived from capital market information.

The growth rates applied for impairment testing in 2015 and 2014 and the capital cost factors used to discount the expected cash flows are shown in the following table:

Impairment Testing Parameters

 

 

Growth rate

 

After-tax cost of capital

 

 

2014

2015

 

2014

2015

 

 

%

%

 

%

%

Pharmaceuticals

 

0.0

0.0

 

6.5

6.2

Consumer Care

 

0.0

0.0

 

6.5

6.2

Radiology

 

0.0

0.0

 

6.5

6.2

Animal Health

 

0.0

0.0

 

6.5

6.2

Crop Protection

 

2.0

2.3

 

6.7

6.3

Seeds

 

2.8

1.9

 

6.7

6.3

Environmental Science

 

1.3

1.8

 

6.7

6.3

Diphenylmethane Diisocyanate (MDI)

 

1.5

2.0

 

6.0

6.1

Toluene Diisocyanate (TDI)

 

2.0

 

6.1

Polyether (PET)

 

0.0

0.0

 

6.0

6.1

Polycarbonates (PCS)

 

1.5

2.0

 

6.0

6.1

Base & Modified Isocyanates (BMI)

 

2.0

2.0

 

6.0

6.1

Resins (RES)

 

2.0

2.0

 

6.0

6.1

Specialty Films (SF)

 

1.0

2.0

 

6.0

6.1

No impairment losses were recognized on goodwill on the basis of the global annual impairment testing of the cash-generating units and unit groups in 2015 or 2014. In 2014, a €6 million impairment loss was recognized on a goodwill item following an impairment test performed in connection with a divestiture. Impairment losses on goodwill, other intangible assets, property, plant and equipment – net of €1 million (2014: €2 million) in impairment loss reversals – totaled €229 million (2014: €223 million). Details are provided in Notes [17] and [18].

Although the estimates of the useful lives of certain assets, assumptions concerning the macroeconomic environment and developments in the industries in which the Bayer Group operates, and estimates of the discounted future cash flows are believed to be appropriate, changes in assumptions or circumstances could require changes in the analysis. This could lead to additional impairment losses in the future or – except in the case of goodwill – to reversals of previously recognized impairment losses if developments are contrary to expectations.

The sensitivity analysis for cash-generating units and unit groups to which goodwill is allocated was based on a 10% reduction in future cash flows, a 10% increase in the Weighted average cost of capital (WACC) The weighted average cost of capital (WACC) represents the return expected by investors on the capital invested in the company. It is computed as a weighted average of the cost of equity and debt. The cost of equity is derived from capital market information and represents the return expected by stockholders, while the cost of debt represents the conditions at which the company can borrow money over the long term. or a one-percentage-point reduction in the long-term growth rate. Bayer concluded that no impairment loss would need to be recognized on goodwill in any cash-generating unit or unit group under these conditions.